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Adapted Basketball for the Blind

Physical Education: Integration Education

Bahram Jadidi- Zahra Shahi


Department of blind physical education Especial Education Organization of Iran

Tehran – Iran

P.O.Box  14515 - 584


    The origin and basis of joined up schools is that all students disregarding their possible differences, should have an equal chance of education. So special consideration should be taken to their needs and educational environment.

    One of the lessons to be learned by students in each term will be the physical education. Blind students joined up with ordinary students, however different in abilities, should try to learn different fields of sports. Thus, in order to equalize the conditions for both groups to practice the sports being played in schools, suitable methods should be applied.

    This case made our research group to think on adaptation of educational environment and the rules for common sports practice. Therefore, in our course of study, we were always adapting current equipment’s and rules being used in sports like track, football, table tennis, cycling, wrestling and basketball.

    Here the reason for choosing basketball for adaptation and measures taken in this regard are to be explained. Basketball is a team sport and both the blinds and partially sighted people show great interest to learn and practice it. In our preliminary teaching for these students we found out that as they are able to play football in which the feet have the main role, they are able to learn basketball in which the hands have the most important role.

    Basketball is can affect the player physically and spiritually. This is done through esprit de corps and organizing individuals for group activities to get a definite end. This sport which has very sensitive and delicate rules, in spires the youth to punctuality and taking their chances.

    Following the rules and obeying the referees decisions are dominant characteristics of this sport. The main goal of each team is to throw the ball into the opponents basket or putting it into the internal square of the basketball board More over, respecting the rules, each team tries to restrict the opponent team attacks toward their own ground and win the game.

    During the research we have experimented variety of methods to adapt the necessary equipment of this sport:

  1. Using bells on the ball :

In the first process we parted a 2cm circle from the valve point of the ball and placed some

     small bells in it. Then after mending the ball we inflated it standard size. In this way the player   

     is able to pursue the ball sound while playing.

  1. Separation of basketball boards by two continuous sounds :

     In the second process, for accuracy in determining the course, using two sets of recorders, we  

     broadcast two rhythmic melodies at the backboard. In this way the players were able to

     distinguish the position of their board from the opponents through the sound.

  1. Using bells on the basketball ring :

      In the third process, to recognize the scored ball, we installed a bell at center of ring by a  

      squeezed spring joined to the must of the set at the back of basketball board .In this situation if   

      the ball hits the ring, net, or board its vibration cannot cause the bell ring , unless a goal is


  1. Separation of the quality of internal square of the basketball board :

      In the fourth process, to distinguish the internal square of the basketball board from our wooden   

      environment, we covered this section with a thin metal coating. In this way upon any hit by the

      player receives a different sound.

  1. Changing the quality of the outer part of the court :

     In this process we covered the outer part of the court by one meter width, to distinguish the court

     from its outer part. Here if the player goes out of the court by mistake through foot touching, he

     feels the floor differences and notices his with drawl from the court, and return back . We also

    determined the free throw point by relief lines.

  1. Simplification of game rules :

    In the sixth process in order for easy application of the laws and rules of the game, we simplified

    them up to the extent that the form of the game remain unchanged .

   ● Blind player carries the ball on the court by hitting it on to the ground using one or both hands

    and repeating it whenever he wishes to change his position on the court.

   ●Each team consists of five players and the couches are responsible to use two B1 and B2    

    players for each team arrangement.

   ● Under the ring there is a ruled trapezium area in which the attackers are not allowed to stop

    more than 5 seconds with their ball.

   ● For experimental practice of blind basketball, and due to spatial limitation we chose a court size

     18 – 18 Meter.

   ● Scores : ●If the ball is thrown from the back point of trapezium area and falls into the basket it has 3    

    scores. ●If the ball is thrown from inside the trapezium area and falls into the basket 2 scores are gained.

    ●If the ball falls into the basket through free throw, it has 2 scores. ●If the ball is thrown from

    any point of the court and hits the internal square of the basketball  

board , it gains 1 score.

7-  Individual and team skill training:

     In the seventh process for training the beginners we started from simple skills like dribble, pass

     and shoot. Then went on until we had a team game.

     ● In dribble section we taught both the short and long dribbles . But the blind player showed  

      more interest towards the short one to hold the ball for longer period.

     ● For pass training section, ground pass and other forms were taught. It is worthy to say that the

      blind players were more inclined to use ground passes because it had more accuracy for the

      passer and the one who received it .

     ● In shoot training section different kinds of ball throwing towards the basket were explained

     and practiced .It is not worthy to say that the players often used one or both hands to shoot and

      jumped towards opponents basket to score a goal.


    Our research team performed their descriptive investigation for comparing the practice of basketball skills by blind and partially sighted people on an adapted court and equipment and ordinary one.

    This research was accomplished on 20,15-18 years old blind and partially sighted students who had no mobility problems. These students after seven months of training were given two tests .In the first test they practiced basketball skill on an ordinary court and were tested . In the second they played on an adapted court and were tested on it. At the end, using descriptive statistics the following results were gained:


Data from two tests of the experiment

Titles First Second Difference

 Controlling the ball                                                                  207               326                   +119

 Choosing the route with care                                                   123               264                   +141

 Careful passing                                                                         129              211                   +82

 Finding the place of basketball board                                      74                163                    +89

 The number of scored goals                .                                    27                58                      +31

 Defense                                                                                    154               301                   +147

 Personal faults                                                                          43                21                      -22

    With the results already gained we can say that blind and partially people performed basketball skills much better when they used adapted equipment and court.


      Thus to continue this research of adaptation we suggest the followings:

  1. A search to be performed on installation of an electronic lens attached to a bell and located on the route of the ball passing through the ring, to alarm the scored goals.
  2. A search to be performed on the use of a (receiver-transmitter) set to distinguish the distance from the basketball board .One side of the source should be attached to player’s body and the other to behind the back of basket.

    We hope that this experiment to open the way to coaches of  blind and partially sighted people practicing this attractive field of sport. 


     My wife and I have an M. S. in physical Education and we are both the member of scientific section of the special education organization of Iran. We have a son and a daughter.

     It is about 20 years since we have been experiencing and researching on physical education for the blind. During this period we have innovated sixteen devices for the exceptional people which are approved by the Ministry of Culture and Higher Education and Industrial, and Scientific Researches Organization in Iran. One of the most important activities is producing a new method for teaching sports to the blind ((Embossed Sport Pictures)) that was published in magazine of International Blind Sport Association (I.B.S.A) (No.10.1996) which was considered as new method for teaching. We also gave an article about ((Cycling Field for the Blind)) to 5th Scientific Congress Sydney 2000 Paralympic Games. We are making a film about physical education for the blind students.

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