“I am in the world of social relations” is the supporting educational program for visually impaired pupils
School Years: Research
Department of Special Pedagogics
Belorussian State Pedagogical University
Minsk, 33-58 Fizkuturnaya Str.
Preparing of visually impaired children for independent life is the main purpose of the theory and practice of their education. There are several approaches to achieve of this purpose. One of them is to create conditions for development of personal structures helping person to realize and strengthen himself as a subject of the vital activity. During several years we have been investigating this problem, we have been working out programs of the development of the personal structure as valuable orientations system. We are carring out these investigations because modern scientific data point to valuable orientations system is the collection of strategic purposes and plays a leading role in personal behaviour control. One of the results of our scientific-practical research is supporting educational program “I am in the world of social relations” for visually impaired pupils.
The conception of the program
When we created these program we are directed by following scientific statements.
The purpose and tasks of program
The program stimulates the development of valuable orientations of visually impaired senior pupils and promotes forming them into system. Realization of this program presupposes solution of following tasks.
The maintenance of the program
The program is continued two years. It consist of two bloc. Each bloc includes topics and is learned 40 hours (20 lessons). The maintenance of blocs are shown on fig.1.
Fig. 1. The maintenance of the program
The first bloc presupposes the immersion in the system of relations “person and surrounding people”. Senior pupils join to such values as respect, friendship, love, social recognition e.t.c. They analyse their system of social relations, the experience of other people basing on these values. The analyse of the personal system of attitudes is going simultaneously the stimulation of personal qualities, which necessary for realization of valuable attitudes (kindness, honesty, faithfulness, disinterestedness, gratitude, tolerance, confidence, responsibility, initiative). The second bloc presupposes the immersion in the system of relations “spheres and conditions of vital activity of person”. Senior pupils work with such values as health, nature, creation, labour, cognition, intercourse and other, also they establish the connection between values and personal qualities, which necessary for their realization (industry, inquisitiveness, accuracy, exactingness, independence, confidence, initiative and others). The work in every bloc allows senior pupils to discover and specify the common social-significant sense and the value of learning objects and to create their personal sense and value.
The maintenance of every topic of both the first bloc and the second one includes 5 parts:
Every component of the maintenance of the topic accent attention of a teacher on new possibilities of learning material: provide the organization of various work with information and create conditions for the development of special skills.
The work on the program is made in the group (6-8 pupils), lessons are conducted once a week. The first part of the realization of program is diagnostic. Valuable orientations of every participant of the group are learned by special methods. Valuable orientational maps are done for every participant and an group. This information is used for the correction of the maintenance of some topics of the program and organization of the individual work. The work forming the motivation to coming lessons is made on the diagnostic part. Main arguments of the joint future work are: the possibility to know himself and surrounding people better, to learn to raise the purpose and use the strongest aspects of the personality for achievement of purposes. Participants of the group make the series of exercises, which help them to do small discoveries and make sure that exist many interesting things, and they did not thing about them seriously or did not thing about them at all (for example, why is love arised? What does friendship give of a person?).
Learning of the maintenance of program on lessons is realized by organization of interaction between two flatnesses: between participants and between participants and adult-teacher. This interaction is built on principles of the spatial equality, the dialogue, the polylog and the respect of the personal autonomy. The spatial equality supposes that the position of every participant in the space, in which the group work, presupposes him the access to information and contacts. The dialogue demand skills not only say ideas, but also to hear other people, and to obtain for himself the useful experience. The polylog presupposes the possibility to express an opinion of every participant. The respect to personal autonomy gives the right of every participant of the group not to take part in discussion, if he does not want to do it.
The main character of joint activity of participants of the group is the active idea-creation. Prepared answers and solutions are non given for participants, they are stimulated to search for this purpose. Special means for showing information are used: the show of the change ability and the variety of phenomena, the demonstration their positive and negative aspects, the suggestion to find in the negative phenomenon positive aspects, but in positive one to look for negative aspects, the presentation of incomplete information about facts and the creation conditions for their addition by the personal sense, the transmission by teacher of personal attitudes to surrounding world and others. The idea-creation of participants of the group is activated by various forms of the organization of their activity: discussion, debate, role plays, intellectual plays, creative tastes, competitions of creative works, conducting of diaries. The result of the personal idea-creation is acquisition of two types of knowledge about himself: 1) knowledge-description, they enlarge presentation about himself, allow to compare him self with others, give the explanation of facts of the personal behaviour, stimulate of questions directed at further self- knowledge; 2) knowledge-regulator of activity, they provide realizing of latent mental building, which manage behaviour of people.
Senior pupils receive the support of teacher in the process of activity. Means of the support include two groups. The first group is the common support. It directs on all pupils and provides favourable emotional background in the group, mutual uderstanding and cooperation. Means of the common support are the attentive attitude to pupils, the faith to them, attracting them to joint planning of the activity, the creation of the situation of mutual learning. The second group is the individual support. It direct on the increase of the significance of personal contributions of participants of the group in the solution of common tasks and the increase of the status of them. Means of the individual support are the calculation of personal problems, the creation of the situation of the success, the creation of conditions for self realization.
The participation of visually impaired senior pupils in the program is show, that this program is interesting and productive. Every participant of the program receive the possibility to make personal self-determination and to prepare to social self-determination basing on appropriative values. Senior pupils, which learn the course, have more realizive behaviour, real vital plans, with succession and persistence of their achievement.
Values are assumed in results of spiritual efforts of personality. The program offered is one of the variant of the answer how we can help of personality: where direct its efforts, how organize these efforts and provide them by the maintenance and methods in conditions of the educational establishment.
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