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CONFERENCE ICEVI STRUCTURAL MODIFICATIONS OF THE EDUCATIVE SYSTEM OF THE PEOPLE WITH VISUAL DISABILITY: ECONOMICAL PERSPECTIVE


By Econ. Lourdes Romero Moon.
Arequipa - Peru


I. MOTIVATION


Working in the National Council of Integration of the Person with Disability of Peru, I had opportunity to talk with the President of the Organism and I took the freedom to suggest every day would have to go to the personnel, although they were only five minutes of a substantial dialogue, until the moment arrived ':
Of the dialogue, there was something in special that hit to me. ... the economists have a debt with the group of disables. The doctors have extraordinary contributions as far as rehabilitation; the pedagogue on the special and inclusive education; and thus, the psychologists, lawyers, architects; but, from the economy it lacks himself a proposal of productive insertion, from integration to the market, the socioeconomic development, not only like individuals but like social group..... From that time, the permanent support to the people with disability is not for me pushes momentary, is rather, a life compromise.

II.EDUCATION And ECONOMIC: EXIGENCIES OF APPROACHES
1. A PERSONAL EXPERIENCE

The first years of my primary formation I attended them in a conventional school (for people without disability), because my parents did not know the existence of a Special School; there my teachers planned themselves to teach to me with wool stuck on a fine cardboard, the different numerical characters and from text, so that he took note from the class dictation, in tint and studied with my friends. Being my yield similar to the one of the average.
Towards 3rd. year of primary, already they transferred me to Special the Educative Center our Lady Of the Pillar, where I learned the braille, eliminating completely of my tools the use of the tint writing; in that Center I concluded my secondary formation.
Almost from the beginning, I can see that the programs trimmed the curricular goals of other schools, because when talked with my cousins, they being of my age, knew many things that I not even imagined that they existed. Also, much emphasis occurred to the weave by hand, as much so the hours of academic education were from the 8:00 to the 13:45 and, every day we attended the weave factory (only option of labor formation for women), from the 14:45 to the 17:45; the time to develop the little tasks that left the teachers us limited the remaining hours, shared with the own games of the age.
With these complaisant educative conditions, the evaluation of my yield, showed qualifying very high, as much so when I concluded 5th Year of secondary, I received a   special decoration as the award of academic excelence, like recognition to my permanent dedication. This distinction, allowed me to accede to a simple evaluation that it became to all the first positions of the conventional schools, for the free enter the university. This way,  was not difficult to me to arrive at the Faculty from Economic -  Administratives Sciences from the Catholic University Santa Maria of Arequipa, Peru.
As I said previously, to enter the University for me was quite simple; the problems came when I was inside. First, one assumed at least that she was an excellent student, therefore they indicated diplomas to it of first position annual. According to memory, it was the initial class of Mathematical I in the Catholic University, was begun with logic circuits, in a schematic analysis and also of symbols. To my 15 years old, with the typical naivete and little tools of socialization that it gave me, my permanence in a Center of Special Education, did not stop to turn around towards all side to listen what my classmates said on the subject and found that all took note and affirm with the head, like that reviews the things. Soon polinomics equations came from 5th degree and also, it listened that all seemed to review the subject.
In that time, when it finished leaving an artificial world that gave insufficient opportunities me of interaction with people without disability, did not know to disguise my feelings and, my self-esteem saw by grounds in that first class of Mathematical: How a student with qualifying stops could be repeating frequently God mine, what thing is this -, What I do here< ' -, in what moment it was happened to me to take this option -, Why I did not decide by a conventional career for blind people, like Law, Education or Psychology...
The certain thing is that in this my first contact, I left the University with tears in the eyes, of course, agravated by the compassionates attitudes of my classmates who did not see me like a student, but as a victim of the destiny. In the way to house, the tears were dried and when I arrived I greeted my family and I did not want to share my defeat to them, because perhaps we were not sufficiently friends to throw to me to cry to seas in the shoulder of some of them.
Good, I went running to the library that we had in the third floor (solitary atmosphere) and, after crying - no longer memory if or little enough -, I said myself to same me that already it was embarked in the career of Economist and, the only solution possible was to row and, that solution was to row of good to better...

I promised myself  that my time was going to be dedicated exclusive and primarily to study, which meant that elementary necessities like sleeping, eating or to take a walk, completely became secondary and relative.
The problems not only I found them in Mathematics, but in the different courses between which also it is Spanish Language (it was necessary to read and to make works kilometric and, if it decided to record in cassettes, when it finished, the professor  were in another subject or another book, without leaving time me to at least listen to the cassettes that had recorded)...
All it, motivated to me to have a routine of studies that implied to rise to 2:00 of the dawn and to prolong the study from that hour to having breakfast between the 7:30 to 7:45; soon more study; to have lunch from 13:30 to 14:00 hours, to continue studying and to get ready for the University to 16:00 hours, to be right to 17:00 hours beginning classes in the Faculty... That routine, was infallible, without concerning the circumstances and until Saturdays, Sundays and holidays, when no longer it went to the Faculty, it continued studying.
The dedication to the study, rendered its fruits and when the first examination came from Mathematics: it did not have any aid compensatory, does not stop to read, but to write, it knew the characters in tint...
In short, memory that the Professor, began to call list and the notes did not surpass 08 in a scale of 20 and, still worse, they were negative..., and arrived at my last name, I raised the hand timidly and the professor requested to me to put me of foot and, he said to all the students: she is his classmate? they responded with their customary voice of pity: yes. My note was 19...., then, finished the expressions , poor little thing. and, from they began there to say to me: friend, we studied?..

2. THE COLLECTIVE REALITY

As opposed to the reviewed personal experience, as well as of those who are in the task of promoting the labor insertion of the blind people ones, we stated that there are serious limitations in the educative scheme, since it is common to observe attitudes and own labor aptitudes of a dependency culture, actual presence and reluctance to the change, specially by ignorance of those means of the market that look for the high competitiveness to obtain originating familiar income of the work and not of programs of social aid.
The present population of people with visual disability , economically active, requires mainly, to be including in a process of integral reconversion. In some places one comes summoning and arranging the support from different Public Institutions specialized that they will offer resources human, financial, logistic and technical, to give to a better sustenance to the programs of integral qualification for the blind and people of different limitations in general. Many come working aspects like:
· physical and psychological Rehabilitation
· Education and culture
· Formation for the work and
· labor Reconversion
The idea is to have a competitive labor supply, which it can be put in show window and, that responds to the expectations that we pruned to generate with the intense campaigns of sensibility to the public institutions, to the emprise one and to the colectivity in general.

III.   THE EDUCATION AND THE CHALLENGES OF THE PRODUCTIVE

INSERTION
1.
STRUCTURAL LIMITS OF THE EDUCATIVE SYSTEM OF THE PEOPLE WITH VISUAL DISABILITY
The diverse deficiencies that we experimented still more in our formation, which they become for social and cultural integration more well-known, when the bases for a suitable productive insertion practically is considered like own subject of the qualification or professional rehabilitation - other people's to the education -, situation that limits to us of resources and that actually they push, to not few people, towards the presence; for that reason, it not only corresponds to a personal attitude but to the collective conscience of the associations, assuming an active roll in the reformulation of the educative schemes.
1. THE ECONOMY AND ASPECTS OF THE PRODUCTIVE INSERTION OF THE PEOPLE WITH VISUAL DISABILITY
Trying to have a reference frame in which to locate the insertion productive, we outlined three aspects to consider:
· To effect to manage the productive insertion of the person with disability and in order to design the best strategies than allows us to fulfill an active roll in the market, will be necessary to know competitive and comparative the advantages, in contrast to the behavior of the different economic agents.
· Based on the knowledge of before referred advantages, will be able to be determined the limits and potentialities of productive insertion and development of the person with disability, aspects which will have to affect the integral programs of the services of physical and psychological rehabilitation, education and culture, formation for the work and labor reconversion.
· Since the markets respond to the stimuli of cohesion agents, associative models must be promoted that better adapt to their expectations and requirements, for which it will be necessary to redefine the objectives and strategies of the association of people with visual disability.

IV. THE EDUCATIVE PERSPECTIVE OF THE ECONOMY AND OBJECTIVES
From the economy, it is possible to raise some questions to evaluate the structure of our educative systems for people with visual disability. Thus, he would be advisable to review as we are responding, among others, to the following objectives:
1. Academic Base No-Restrictive
If we left from the consideration that the blind person has the same intellectual abilities like those who do not have blindness, the education would have to exclusively look for to provide elements of compensation to the student and not to create a different world to him; for such reason, I believe that the early inclusion from the student to conventional schools, is healthful, being able to none put only within reach of the student tending support to the solution of the problems that could be presented/displayed to him, but in a paternal or protectionistic sense, but exclusively to way of pursuit in the optimization of compensation alternatives.
I want to resort for an example of simplest, but I believe that valid: a boy in poverty situation, does not experience in his academic formation curricular cuts, but that the elements of support of that one their formation, tend to be characterized by the accessibility to resources that has the family of him. One looks for compensation elements that offer to similars access opportunities him that those that has those students of average and high socioeconomic levels. Thus, a boy in poverty access to the educative material, buying books of second use, but finally, acquires knowledge similar to those of a boy of high socioeconomic layer and, in a scholastic aid, it is possible inclusively that the boy in poverty situation, still emphasizes on the other student.
Of analogous way, none who have visual disability, they would have to experience curricular cuts at the time of its or basic initial, primary formation academic, because it reduces opportunities to us of total integration.
In this context, it could be redefined objective, but none trim the academic objectives, reducing competitiveness to educating; however, the idea is to offer to the blind person or deficient line of vision, the same abilities that educating without disability, optimizing a time and additional effort that is required to obtain it.
1. The Times of answer
The individualized education that requires the students with blindness, none must foment its slowness in the processes, because the only thing that persecutes this conception, is to offer the opportunity them to replace with the tact, what they cannot learn from the slate or the joint demonstration.
The academic exigencies would still have to be greater, because the formation base would have to look for speed in the inherent workings, so that store to the use of response times similar to the employees by children of conventional schools. Highly competitive people would have to form, still more if we know that to a blind person she takes greater time him to make the same things that to those who do not have visual disability.
From the perspective of the economy we observed that the necessities of productive insertion and the reality of a highly competitive market demand speed, so that the education must prepare us to obtain response times similar to the people nondisability.
1. The Visual Resources Of The Surroundings
The person with disability, during the different phases from her life, permanently must resort to visual support: in order to read material printed in tint of diverse nature, to look for something misled, to approach the bus, to cross sidewalks, to locate addresses or offices, to find to a person between the multitude, in aim. Therefore, their formation and education, must put special emphasis in the promotion and involution of their abilities to catch of the people of their surroundings, the visual support that it requires.
The eye is an invaluable resource. If the people we had wings we would not need the airplane to fly, this "fictitious disability", of not being able to fly, has a high economic cost, only the aeronautics industry moves thousands of million dollars to the year. How much costs the resource of the eye? The daily life teaches to us that to be able to make an activity we requested the aid of a relative or the friends, nevertheless is possible to harness these resources still more and, therefore the magnitude of its economic impact.
To count on visual support, none must mean use of exclusively remunerated human resources, but that must offer the necessary tools, so that the person with blindness knows to catch the abundant visual resources that there are in its surroundings and the colectivity in general. Thus, the blind person must count on elements that allow him to catch friendships or, the interest of his classmates that do not have visual disability, to work with him and, of step, to put to disposition his ground visual aid to him.
The education must prepare us to detect visual resources of the surroundings, with techniques of mutual aid or I interest shared. How much it costs to have a person who reads a book to us? What amount of hours man.
For example, we know  that between the curricular exigencies, is there the preparation of allocations and, which the person with blindness has a competitive advantage, as is its speed to type, because from early age him standard types (to differentiates from the pupils without visual disability), it of course, if one is used suitably, can be an element of pick up of ground visual aid, because the blind student, can negotiate with his classmates: you look for the material and you read me it and I, can quickly take note from whichever dictate to me in the computer; if we want to catch aid, is necessary to arouse the interest.
Something truely valuable, will be to mainly foment in the person with blindness a great human quality that allows him to have facility to make friends, changing the tradition to attract the people being looked for its compassion, why to resort to it, if other great qualities of the blind person can be exploded, who from the beginning, can be constituted in sensibility elements that to future promote it like a valuable human resource that there is to catch for the sake of contributing to an optimal bussines performance.
4. The Formation by Demand

I agree totally with those who affirm that with the academic education, she must be prepared so to the people with visual disability of way that they can be inserted labor, with promptitude and to finance of that way its superior formation or its own necessities and those of its family, because unlike the developed countries, in our means the inherent problem to the disability, is gone deep by the poverty.
Nevertheless, I differ in which to this group, like a people with other disabilities, for does not occur them to a technical formation demand, but por supply. and, at the time of the productive insertion, we found that they are not enabled in agreement with the requirements of the market and, all the investment of time, effort and financial and technical resources, do not serve to give real and not even partial solution their problematic one.
I still consider that all center of education must count on an area of formation for the work and, more good, must count on advising specialized in the matter, to effect to permanently reorient the options of qualification that are distributed, with a futurist vision, because at the time of the labor insertion one is due to be able to give to the employers or the independent work or creation of little bussiness, solutions and none, unsalvable problems.
5. Gremial Factor
The Associationism, like collective expression of the people with disability,it can generate a force of will and capacity of extraordinary overcoming, or also it can create an image of division and conflict. To stimulate the development of an image based on values, is not only the culture of a resource for the productive insertion but for the complexity of the same life. To affirm to the sense of overcoming and the force of will, can be defining the social identity of the people with visual disability
From the perspective of the economy, the education must prepare us to cultivate values and image like strategic resources that they allow to better levels of confidence and social recognition, considering that it will have a powerful impact in the market. Thus, the agglutinates characteristics that the unions fulfill, must be valued like partners in the formation processes.
V. THE ICEVI AND  INNOVATING THE EDUCATIVE ADVENTURE AND MULTIDISCIPLINARY
In the City of Arequipa, the people with blindness we have understood the importance of unifying to obtain profits to us to all level and, specially those that talk about to the improvement of the quality of life of all and each one of the blind of the Region.
In this sense, in occasion in that Special the Educative Center and of Rehabilitation for Blind Our Lady Of the Pillar, crosses by a propitious conjuncture for implementation of radical changes, since the institution that for more than fifty years became position of the education of the blind, apparently would retire of this work by personnel deficiency. Thus, taking the conduction from the Center Our Lady Of the Pillar, we will be assuming a commitment to seat solid bases for the total inclusion of the future generations.
Already, to finalize, I consider indispensable that in the education of the people with blindness and visual deficiencies, take part different professionals where each one, from its competition, contributes to formulate an integral and futurist educative system.
For that reason, motivated by the dramatic situation that we tried to change, I am thankful to the ICEVI in its XI World-wide Conference, by this opportunity to participate in the necessity to submerge to us together in the multidisciplinary adventure educative that I propose.


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