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  The  sensory-motor “Vivencias method” and the increase of de visual Efficiency in children with low vision: A Study of case histories


Focus Area: School Years



Topic: Low vision


Mariana Calle de Sarabia

Teacher of Visual Stimulation

C.E.E. “San Francisco de Asís”

Marquez de Guadalcazar 161

La Virreyna – Surco

Lima – Perú

511-2711784

E-mail marianacalle_de_sarabia@hotmail.com

Abstract:

 The starting point of the research is the evaluation of Efficiency in Visual Functioning in nine cases of children between 6 and 14 years old, of the First Grade Special of “C.E.E. San Francisco de Asis” school, with low vision and additional problems (motor, language, emotional, neurological damage, Down syndrome, slight mental retardation, slow learning, and lack of schooling).  The sensory-motor ”Vivencias Method” was used to teach the children reading and writing.  Upon completion of the teaching process after two years, a new evaluation is made of Efficiency in Visual Functioning and of the improvement registered in eye-hand coordination and graphic-plastic (design). It is important to state that for this evaluation the cases were considered separately and showed positive results.

The instruments used were the Diagnostic Assessment Procedure for Efficiency in Visual Functioning by Natalie Barraga, and observation checklist for eye-hand coordination and graphic-plastic (design) development.

The investigation will offer teachers of children with low vision in special and
regular educational centers an additional option for teaching reading and writing. The method requires few changes to adapt to each student’s needs. Likewise, this method contributes to develop visual efficiency when applying regular reading and writing activities.

INTRODUCTION

Notwithstanding the many difficulties children with visual problems have for learning reading and writing, we believe it is necessary that each student use whatever visual capacity they have for reading and writing in print.  To do this the child should be subject to a constant and continuous visual stimulus to motivate him or her to achieve something that will represent a big effort but will give him satisfaction in the future.  Technology is being developed and advances have been made in special supports for persons with visual problems that will help them integrate with society without many difficulties.

The learning of reading-writing techniques is a complex process involving, together with purely intellectual and social and cultural factors, a series of operations and aptitudes in the perceptive and psychomotor fields

The analysis of the characteristics of a good reading and writing technique will facilitate recognition of the visual skills involved in the process, which in one way or another, and in a greater or lesser degree, will affect the child or person with low vision.

Visual efficiency can be defined as the degree or level in which the vision can be used by a person to obtain information.   We evaluate the visual efficiency of a child with the Natalie Barraga (1983) Visual Efficiency Scale, which allows us to determine the level of visual functioning of a person with low vision.  This test is based in the normal visual development of a child. 

After having examined other methods and the characteristics of an adequate method for low vision children, in what concerns the form and the content, the application of the “Sensory Motor Vivencias Method” for teaching reading and writing to a group of children with low vision but without additional problems, demonstrated that it helps to improve the development of visual efficiency in children, in addition to learning to read and write through a process of analysis and synthesis.  This also contributes to improve their visual-motor coordination and their graphic-plastic development.  For this reason, we want to investigate if the “Sensory Motor Vivencias Method” for teaching reading and writing can also achieve an improvement in the development of the visual efficiency in another group of children with low vision and added problems like:  motor, language, emotional, lack of schooling, Down syndrome, slight mental retardation, slow learning capacity, etc.

The general objective of the research is to determine if the use of the “Sensory Motor Vivencias Method” for teaching reading and writing to children with low vision and additional problems improves their visual efficiency.

The specific objectives are:

a)     Find out if the application of the “Sensory Motor Vivencias Method” for teaching reading and writing improves the visual-motor coordination of children with low vision and additional problems.

b)     Find out if the application of the “Sensory Motor Vivencias Method” for teaching reading and writing improves the graphic-plastic (design) level of children with low vision and additional problems.

JUSTIFICATION

The research will contribute to offer teachers of children with low vision, and regular teachers, an additional option for teaching reading and writing, since it is a method requiring a minimum of adaptations like, for example, printing letters and lines in bold, increasing the size of words or sentences depending on the needs of the student, etc.  It also contributes to develop visual efficiency in children during the regular activities related to reading and writing.

METHOD

A qualitative methodology was used, with a case study technique.  The research involved nine (9) children with low vision and additional problems, between 6 and 13 years of age, of the First Grade Special of “C.E.E. San Francisco de Asis” school, who were starting to learn to read and write. 

The diagnosis of the cases analyzed are shown in the following Table No. 1.

The instruments used were the Diagnostic Assessment Procedure (DAP) for Efficiency in Visual Functioning by Natalie Barraga (1983), and the observation checklis of visual-motor coordination observation and graphic-plastic (design) development.

TABLA N° 1

CASOS

 

1

 

2

 

3

 

4

 

5

 

6

 

7

 

8

 

9

 

OFTALMOLÓGIC


DIAGNOS


TIC

 

Retrolental Fibroplasia

 

Atrophy of de Optic Nerve

 

Congenital catarats with surgery

 

Congenital catarats with surgery

Peters’ Sindrome

Toxoplasmosis

 

Mioestrabismo en OU

 

Amaurosis OU

 

Aniridia

Congenital catarats

 

Glaucoma

Ptisis OD

 

Congenital catarats with surgery

Glaucoma

 

PSICOPEDAGOGIC


DIAGNOS


TIC

 

Motor:

Visual-motor coordina

tion

Hipotonía

Emotional:

Insecurity

Lack of attention y concentration

 

Mental retardation

Motor:

Visual-motor coordina

tion

Emotional:

Insecurity

Languaje:

Sound articulation and pronuntiation.

 

Mental retardation

Motor:

Visual-motor coordination

Hipotonía

Languaje:

Sound articulation

Structuring of oration

 

Slow learning capacity

Emotional:

Insecurity

 

Slow learning capacity

Motor:

Uncoordination of movements

Languaje:

Sound articulation

 

Slow learning capacity

Motor:

Visual-motor coordination

Emotional:

Insecurity

Lack of attention y concentration

 

Slow learning capacity

Motor:

Visual-motor coordination

Emotional:

Insecurity

Languaje:

Sound articulation

Estructuring of oration

Lack of attention and concentration

 

Lack of schooling

Lack of attention and concentration

 

Motor:

Visual-motor coordination

Emotional:

Insecurity

Languaje:

Sound articula- tion

Lack of attention and

concentration

 

MEDICAL

DIAGNOS-

TIC

 

 

Traumatism encéfalo craneano severo

 

Downs’Syndrome

 

Infection by Toxoplasmosis

 

Encefalitis tóxica severa

 

Neurologycal damage, poisoning by phosphor devices

 

 

Surgery of heard

 

Convultion

 

RESULTS OF THE GROUP

It was observed that the reading and writing teaching process with the “Sensory-motor Vivencias Method” permitted the completion of the reading part.  In the case of writing, a progress of 80% was achieved in the individuals researched, taking into account that the achievements were affected by problems associated with each of the participating individuals.  Likewise, an improvement of 100% was obtained in visual efficiency, viso-motor coordination, and graphic-plastic (design) development in seven of the cases, and of 75% to 92% in the other two cases (3 and 5). (See grafhics n° 1, 2, 3 and 4)


CONCLUSIONS


-         Visual efficiency improved in the nine cases of children with low vision at the end of the reading-writing process with the use of the “Vivencias Method”:  100% success was obtained in cases 1, 2, 4, 6, 7, 8, and 9, and 75% to 92% in cases 3 and 5.  The eight categories of development of visual efficiency were:

A)   Conscience of visual stimulus;

B)     Control of the eye movement, discernment of form and color;

C)   Exploration, discernment and use of objects;

D)   Discernment and identification of persons and actions, and details and designs in objects;

E)     Memorization of detail; part and all relation; discernment of figure/background;

F)     Discernment, identification and reproduction of abstract figures and symbols;

G)   Perception of relation in designs, abstract figures and symbols;

H)   Identification, perception and reproduction of simple and combined symbols.

-         The eye-hand coordination in the nine cases of children with low vision improved significantly after the application of the “Vivencias Method”, which was adapted to each particular case for manual activities as prehension, agility, gesture domination, independent use of fingers, precision and eye-hand coordination, confirming the results of the research.

-         The graphic-plastic development in the nine cases of children with low vision improved considerably in comparison with the level before the application of the “Vivencias Method”.  This method calls for the making of designs (graphic representation of objects, persons, animals and actions), from the most simple to the most complex.  Cases 3 and 5 reached the doodling stage; cases 1, 2, 6, 7 and 9 the pre-schematic stage; and 4 and 8 in the schematic stage.

RECOMMENDATIONS

-         As a starting point, to take into account the individual characteristics of each child for the application of the “Vivencias Method”.

-         Take into account the use of the “Vivencias Method” for the teaching of reading-writing to children of low vision, following the indicated sequence in the method and adapting it to the particular characteristics (visual, motor, emotional) of each child.

-         Given the emphasis the “Vivencias Method” assigns to different areas, which are actually similar to the visual efficiency areas: visual stimulation, eye-hand and graphic-plastic coordination, it is recommended for children with low vision for improvement of their visual efficiency.

-         Insist that teachers use creativity when applying the method, without modifying the structure of its teaching methodology.

-         Teachers should insist that children with low vision do the designs requested by the method since they will lead to the improvement of their capacity to discern details and will favor their motivation making them and improve their graphic-plastic development level.

-         Take into account the suggestions and motivations expressed by the children while working with the “Vivencias Method” to optimize the reading-writing learning process.

-         Inform teachers using the method in children with low vision of the importance of knowing the visual characteristics of each child, the function of the method, and how cursive handwriting influences their learning process.

-         Adaptations to enhance the application of the “Vivencias Method” should be made according to a multisensorial and multimodal approach.

TABLA N° 2

LECTO -ESCRITURA

 

 

Recognize letters

 

Reproduce symbols

 

Associate words and pictures

 
Identify words
 

Cases

 

Before

 

Interm

 

After

 

Before

 

Interm

 

After

 

Before

 

Interm

 

After

 

Before

 

Interm

 

After.

 

1

 

0

 

60

 

100

 

0

 

50

 

100

 

0

 

60

 

100

 

0

 

50

 

100

 

2

 

0

 

60

 

100

 

0

 

60

 

100

 

0

 

60

 

100

 

0

 

60

 

100

 

3

 

0

 

70

 

100

 

0

 

50

 

100

 

0

 

70

 

100

 

0

 

60

 

100

 

4

 

0

 

80

 

100

 

0

 

80

 

100

 

0

 

80

 

100

 

0

 

80

 

100

 

5

 

0

 

60

 

100

 

0

 

50

 

100

 

0

 

60

 

100

 

0

 

50

 

100

 

6

 

0

 

60

 

100

 

0

 

60

 

100

 

0

 

60

 

100

 

0

 

60

 

100

 

7

 

0

 

60

 

100

 

0

 

50

 

100

 

0

 

60

 

100

 

0

 

60

 

100

 

8

 

0

 

70

 

100

 

0

 

70

 

100

 

0

 

70

 

100

 

0

 

70

 

100

 

9

 

0

 

60

 

100

 

0

 

50

 

100

 

0

 

60

 

100

 

0

 

50

 

100

 

       
       

                                                                                                Grafic N° 1: Process of reading and writing of groupe

TABLA N° 3

VISUAL EFFICIENCY OF GROUPE

 

 

 Caso 1

 

Caso 2

 

  Caso 3

 

Caso 4

 

Caso 5

 
Caso 6
 

Caso 7

 

Caso 8

 

  Caso 9

 

Bef.

 

Aft

 

Bef.

 

Aft.

 

Bef.

 

Aft.

 

Bef.

 

Aft.

 

Bef.

 

Aft.

 

Bef.

 

Aft.

 

Bef.

 

Aft

 

Bef.

 

Aft.

 

Bef.

 

Aft.

 

Sección A

 

100

 

100

 

100

 

100

 

100

 

100

 

100

 

100

 

100

 

100

 

100

 

100

 

100

 

100

 

100

 

100

 

100

 

100

 

Sección B

 

100

 

100

 

100

 

100

 

100

 

100

 

100

 

100

 

100

 

100

 

100

 

100

 

100

 

100

 

100

 

100

 

100

 

100

 

Sección C

 

50

 

100

 

66

 

100

 

67

 

100

 

100

 

100

 

67

 

84

 

83

 

100

 

83

 

100

 

100

 

100

 

67

 

100

 

Sección D

 

33

 

100

 

42

 

100

 

75

 

100

 

75

 

100

 

75

 

92

 

67

 

100

 

75

 

100

 

83

 

100

 

75

 

100

 

Sección E

 

0

 

100

 

0

 

100

 

25

 

100

 

50

 

100

 

25

 

75

 

0

 

100

 

50

 

100

 

50

 

100

 

0

 

100

 

Sección F

 

0

 

100

 

0

 

100

 

75

 

100

 

100

 

100

 

25

 

75

 

50

 

100

 

50

 

100

 

75

 

100

 

25

 

100

 

Sección G

 

0

 

100

 

0

 

100

 

25

 

100

 

25

 

100

 

25

 

75

 

0

 

100

 

25

 

100

 

25

 

100

 

25

 

100

 

       
       

Sección H

 

0

 

100

 

0

 

100

 

0

 

100

 

0

 

100

 

0

 

75

 

0

 

100

 

0

 

100

 

0

 

100

 

0

 

100

 

Grafic N° 2 : Improvement of Visual Efficiency of grorpe

 
   

       
       
 

 
   


Grafic N° 2a: Improvement of Visual Efficiency of grorpe

TABLA N° 4

VISO-MOTOR COORDINATION OF GROUPE

 

 

Caso 1

 

Caso 2

 

Caso 3

 

Caso 4

 

Caso 5

 

Caso 6

 

Caso 7

 

Caso 8

 

Caso 9

 

 

Bef.

 

Aft

 

Bef.

 

Aft.

 

Bef.

 

Aft.

 

Bef.

 

Aft.

 

Bef.

 

Aft.

 

Bef.

 

Aft.

 

Bef.

 

Aft

 

Bef.

 

Aft.

 

Bef.

 

Aft.

 

Copy drawings of geometrics figures

 

0

 

85

 

100

 

100

 

0

 

80

 

100

 

100

 

0

 

80

 

100

 

100

 

100

 

100

 

100

 

100

 

100

 

100

 

Follows ways

 

0

 

85

 

0

 

85

 

0

 

85

 

100

 

100

 

0

 

85

 

0

 

85

 

100

 

100

 

100

 

100

 

100

 

100

 

Unites points

 

0

 

90

 

0

 

90

 

0

 

90

 

100

 

100

 

0

 

90

 

0

 

90

 

100

 

100

 

100

 

100

 

100

 

100

 

Complete the figure following the points

 

0

 

85

 

0

 

85

 

0

 

60

 

100

 

100

 

0

 

60

 

0

 

85

 

100

 

100

 

100

 

100

 

100

 

100

 

Colors without leaving the line

 

0

 

80

 

0

 

80

 

0

 

50

 

50

 

95

 

0

 

50

 

0

 

80

 

0

 

90

 

50

 

95

 

0

 

90

 

Jabs following the contorn

 

0

 

80

 

0

 

80

 

0

 

50

 

50

 

95

 

0

 

50

 

0

 

80

 

0

 

90

 

50

 

95

 

0

 

90

 

Is located in the line

 

0

 

100

 

0

 

100

 

0

 

50

 

100

 

100

 

0

 

50

 

0

 

100

 

0

 

80

 

100

 

100

 

0

 

100

 

 
   

Writes without leaving the line

 

0

 

95

 

0

 

100

 

0

 

50

 

100

 

100

 

0

 

50

 

0

 

95

 

0

 

70

 

100

 

100

 

0

 

80

 

       
       

 

 

       
       
 

       
       


Gráfico N° 3: Improvement of visual-motor coordination of groupe

TABLA N° 5

GRAFIC- PLASTIC (DESIGN) OF GROUPE

 

 

Caso 1

 

 Caso 2

 

Caso 3

 

 Caso 4

 

 Caso 5

 

Caso 6

 

Caso 7

 

Caso 8

 

Caso 9

 

Bef.

 

Aft

 

Bef.

 

Aft.

 

Bef.

 

Aft.

 

Bef.

 

Aft.

 

Bef.

 

Aft.

 

Bef.

 

Aft.

 

Bef.

 

Aft

 

Bef.

 

Aft.

 

Bef.

 

Aft.

 

Garabateo:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Outlines disordered and at random

 

100

 

100

 

100

 

100

 

100

 

100

 

100

 

100

 

100

 

100

 

100

 

100

 

100

 

100

 

100

 

100

 

100

 

100

 

Outlines organized and with name

 

100

 

100

 

100

 

100

 

0

 

100

 

100

 

100

 

0

 

100

 

100

 

100

 

100

 

100

 

100

 

100

 

100

 

100

 

Pre-esquematic:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Human figure, head ans feet.

 

0

 

50

 

100

 

100

 

0

 

50

 

100

 

100

 

0

 

50

 

100

 

100

 

100

 

100

 

100

 

100

 

100

 

100

 

Reconocible drawing of objects with wich it has had contact.

 

0

 

50

 

0

 

100

 

0

 

0

 

100

 

100

 

0

 

0

 

0

 

100

 

100

 

100

 

100

 

100

 

100

 

100

 

Location with disorder

 

0

 

50

 

0

 

50

 

0

 

0

 

90

 

100

 

0

 

0

 

0

 

100

 

90

 

100

 

95

 

100

 

90

 

100

 

So large order

 

0

 

50

 

0

 

50

 

0

 

0

 

90

 

100

 

0

 

0

 

0

 

100

 

90

 

100

 

95

 

100

 

90

 

100

 


                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               

Grafic N° 4: Improvement of grafic – plastic (design) of groupe               


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