Consensus Curriculum Topics Recommended for Developing Countries

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Consensus Curriculum Topics Recommended for Developing Countries

The table below identifies the curriculum topics identified by more than half of the working group members as essential components of a training curriculum for (a) teachers of students with visual impairments in specialized schools, (b) teachers of students with visual impairments in inclusive schools, and (c) classroom/content teachers in inclusive schools. If a particular topic did not reach the more-than-half threshold, it was eliminated from this list and included in “additional topics” below.

Curriculum Topics BVI Teachers,
Special Schools
BVI Teachers,
Inclusive Schools
Classroom Teachers,
Inclusive Schools
Anatomy and physiology of the eye:
Eye anatomy and physiology X X
Eye diseases and disorders X X
Common visual disorders in children X X
Causes of visual impairments X X
Functional implications of visual diagnoses X X
Child assessment:
Understanding individual clinical vision assessments, tests, and reports X X
Conducting functional visual assessment X X
Conducting learning media assessment X X
Understanding how visual impairment affects test performance X X
Principles of Optics:
Optical devices: Types of lenses, spectacles, contact lenses, bifocals, field enhancers, etc., how used X X
Non-optical devices, how used X X
Environmental and instructional adaptations, how applied X X X
Preschool and early childhood (3-5 years):
Working with families X X
Parent expectations and support X X X
Domains affected by vision loss (motor, cognitive, social, adaptive) X X X
Visual and tactile development X X
Concept development X X X
Importance of play X X X
Tactile stimulation and development X X
Code, reading and writing X X
Preparation of learning materials X X X
Low vision:
Modified print X X X
Environmental and instructional adaptations X X X
Preparation of learning materials X X X
Instructional approaches:
Learning to describe objects and graphics clearly and meaningfully X X X
Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics: instruction, apparatus, modifications X X
Other content areas (e.g., language arts, social studies, history): instruction, learning aids, modifications X X
Physical education: instruction, modifications X X
Digital technology:
Options and uses: Hardware and software X X
Use of internet X X
Sources for books X X
Orientation and mobility:
Techniques: guiding, searching, use of landmarks X X X
Map preparation, instruction X X
Use of special devices (GPS, etc.) X X
Social skills:
Communication, interaction, self-esteem X X X
Personal care X X
Career education:
Prevocational skills X X
Work skills X X
Internships, other forms of work experience X X
Modifications to work tasks X X
Special topics:
Accomplishments of blind adults/role models X X
Albinism X X
Deafblindness X
Multiple disabilities and visual impairment X X
Preparation for adult roles/relationships X X

Additional Topics

Additional topics were suggested by committee members, but did not reach the agreement threshold. While these topics are valuable, they might be considered as secondary topics, added to the curriculum as the training program matures, or offered as inservice training.

  • Active learning
  • Assessment modifications and adaptations
  • Communication
  • Cortical visual impairment
  • Differentiated learning and instruction
  • Early intervention (birth to 3 years)
  • Executive function
  • Expressions of feeling
  • MDVI teaching strategies
  • Optimize use of remaining visual function
  • Physical, psychological, and sociological effects of disability
  • Role of advocacy
  • Sensory integration