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One of the concerns of the partners implementing the Nippon Foundation-supported higher education program was that not many students graduating from the school system were successfully enrolling in higher education. One of the significant reasons identified was the limited teacher training in mathematics instruction for students with visual impairment. The resultant lack of confidence and skills of teachers was directly impacting on the students’ access and achievement in mathematics in schools. ICEVI recognized this gap in teacher knowledge and developed a publication titled “Mathematics Made Easy for blind children” in 2005-06 in collaboration with the Overbrook Nippon Network on Educational Technology (ONNET). This publication is available on ICEVI website for free download. The Nippon Foundation came forward to support ICEVI to develop video instructional materials to improve the expertise of teachers to teach mathematics effectively to visually impaired students. The CEO of ICEVI, Dr. M.N.G. Mani, is heading this initiative as his expertise is in the area of Mathematics.

The first set of concept videos were piloted in a workshop in South Africa in 2018 involving teachers of mathematics, teacher educators, and teachers who are visually impaired. The participants worked through the concepts and instructions presented in each of the sample videos, and successfully understood methods of teaching mathematics. The project had a target of preparing at least 100 instructional videos every year on various topics of primary, secondary and senior secondary mathematics. ICEVI has established a dedicated YouTube channel https://www.youtube.com/c/ICEVIMathMadeEasy/ playlists which has 475 instructional videos on teaching concepts in mathematics, including teaching the abacus. ICEVI is pleased to advise that there are currently 3800+ subscribers and the rate of subscription is steadily increasing. The viewership of the instructional videos is also more than 400,000. ICEVI has initiated the process of preparing another 100 demonstration videos on mathematics concepts by teachers from the Philippines and Indonesia in 2023.

ICEVI believes that these open access, online instructional videos are a quality resource for individuals with visual impairments, parents and teachers, and promote children learning and enjoying mathematics.

Sl. No. | Title | Playlist |
---|---|---|

1 | ICEVI – Nippon Foundation Introduction | General |

2 | Mathematics Video- teaching tips | |

3 | ICEVI Math Made Easy – Messages | |

4 | Adapting regular teaching aids | |

5 | Math Videos – Present Status and Future Plans | |

6 | Here is how we improvise teaching materials | |

7 | Drawing experience to Visually Impaired Children | |

8 | (a+b) x (a+b) | Algebra |

9 | (a+b) x (a-b) | |

10 | (x+a) x (x+b) | |

11 | (x+a) X (x-b) | |

12 | (x-a) x (x+b) | |

13 | (a + b + c) x (a + b + c) | |

14 | (x-a) x (x-b) | |

15 | (a-b) x (a-b) | |

16 | Expanded Form of a number | Basic operations in Mathematics |

17 | Addition of numbers using Expanded Template | |

18 | Complex addition using Expanded Form Template | |

19 | Simple subtraction of numbers using Expanded Template | |

20 | Complicated subtraction of numbers using Expanded Template | |

21 | Decimal multiplication – Part 1 | Decimal |

22 | Decimal multiplication – Part 2 | |

23 | Least Common Multiple | Fractions |

24 | Greatest Common Divisor | |

25 | Fractions – General Concepts | |

26 | Whole to Fractions | |

27 | Proper Fraction | |

28 | Improper Fraction | |

29 | Converting Improper Fraction into Mixed Fractions | |

30 | Like, unlike and equivalent fractions | |

31 | Means extremes property | |

32 | Reducing fraction into lowest terms | |

33 | Multiplicative inverse | |

34 | Comparison of fractions | |

35 | Sum of angles of a quadrilateral equals 360° | Geometry |

36 | Angle formed on a semicircle equals 90° | |

37 | Sum of angles of a triangle is equal to 180° | |

38 | Major Angles – Part 1 | |

39 | Sixteen folds and geometrical shapes | |

40 | Major Angles – Part 2 | |

41 | Complementary and Supplementary angles | |

42 | Perimeter | |

43 | Exterior angle of a cyclic quadrilateral equals the interior opposite angle | |

44 | Centroid | |

45 | Centroid divides the median in the ratio of 1: 2 | |

46 | Incentre | |

47 | Circumcentre | |

48 | Perimeter of a Semicircle | |

49 | Angles on Minor and Major segments | |

50 | Angle subtended at the centre | |

51 | Concentric Circles | |

52 | Area of a right angle triangle | |

53 | Circles touching internally | |

54 | Area of a Quadrilateral | |

55 | All about Triangles | |

56 | Forming all Types of Triangles | |

57 | Rectangular Pathways – Part 1 | |

58 | Incircle of a right angle triangle | |

59 | Rectangular Pathways – Part 2 | |

60 | Orthocentre | |

61 | Pi and r – Relationship between the Radius and the Circumference | |

62 | Plane, Side and Vertex | |

63 | Inequalities – Additive property | Inequalities |

64 | Inequalities – Multiplicative property | |

65 | Inequalities – commutative and associative properties | |

66 | Functions Characteristics | |

67 | One-to-One Function | |

68 | Many-to-One Function | |

69 | Transversal – Part 2 – Vertically Opposite Angles through paper folding | Lines |

70 | Transversal – Part 1 – Angles | |

71 | Transversal – Part 5 – Explanation through Paper folding | |

72 | Transversal – Part 4 – Perpendicular Transversal | |

73 | Transversal – Part 3 – Parallel Lines | |

74 | Intersecting and non-intersecting circles | |

75 | Line Segments | |

76 | Skew lines | |

77 | Intersection and bisection | |

78 | Horizontal and vertical | |

79 | Collinear and non-collinear points | |

80 | Equidistance and Concurrent lines | |

81 | Matrices Introduction | Matrices |

82 | Types of Matrices | |

83 | Matrix addition | |

84 | Scalar Matrix | |

85 | Transpose of a Matrix | |

86 | Negative of a Matrix | |

87 | Symmetric Matrix | |

88 | Matrix addition is commutative | |

89 | Matrix Subtraction | |

90 | Matrix subtraction is not commutative | |

91 | Matrix Multiplication – General Concepts part 1 | |

92 | Matrix Multiplication – General Concepts part 2 | |

93 | Matrix Multiplication – General Concepts part 3 | |

94 | Matrix Multiplication – General Concepts part 4 | |

95 | Placement of elements in Matrix Multiplication part 1 | |

96 | Placement of elements in Matrix Multiplication part 2 | |

97 | Placement of elements in Matrix Multiplication part 3 | |

98 | Multiplication of 3X2 and 2X2 Matrix | |

99 | Multiplication of 2X2 and 2X3 Matrix | |

100 | Matrix multiplication involving negative numbers | |

101 | Matrix multiplication (2X2) and (2X4) with negative numbers | |

102 | Scalar Multiplication | |

103 | Multiplication with an Identity matrix | |

104 | Unit or Identity matrix | |

105 | Multiplication of single digit numbers 8 and 5 | Multiplication of Numbers |

106 | Multiplication of a single digit number 3 | |

107 | Multiplication of a double digit number | |

108 | Multiplier, multiplicand, Dividend, Divisor and Quotient | |

109 | Multiplication of three digit number | |

110 | Multiplication involving a four digit number | |

111 | Multiplication of a 3 digit multiplier and 2 digit multiplicand | |

112 | Multiplication of a 4 digit multiplier with a 4 digit multiplicand | |

113 | Multiplication of a 3 digit multiplier and 3 digit multiplicand | |

114 | Multiplication of a 4 digit multiplier with 3 digit multiplicand | |

115 | Ascending and Descending order | Numbers |

116 | Number Line | |

117 | Twin primes | |

118 | Perfect Numbers | |

119 | Cardinal and Ordinal Numbers | |

120 | Odd and Even numbers | |

121 | Prime Numbers | |

122 | Composite Numbers | |

123 | Predecessor and Successor | |

124 | Natural numbers, whole numbers and integers | |

125 | A Intersection B – Demonstration with Objects | Set Theory |

126 | A Union B – Demonstration with Objects | |

127 | Types of Sets | |

128 | An Identity in Set Language | |

129 | De Morgan’s Law on Set Difference – Part 1 – A– (B Ո C) = (A-B) U (A-C) – Through Shapes | |

130 | De Morgan’s Law on Set Difference – Part 2 – A– (B U C) = (A-B) Ո(A-C) – Through Numbers | |

131 | Equal and Equivalent Sets | |

132 | A Union B – Demonstration with Numbers | |

133 | A Intersection B – Demonstration with Numbers | |

134 | De Morgan’s Law on Set Difference – Part 2 – A–(B Ո C) = (A-B) U (A-C) – Through Numbers | |

135 | De Morgan’s Law on Set Difference – Part 1 – A–(B U C) = (A-B) Ո (A-C) – Through Shapes | |

136 | A Union B – Demonstration with Tactile Materials | |

137 | A Intersection B – Demonstration with Tactile Materials | |

138 | Cartesian Product | |

139 | Power Set | |

140 | Roster Form and Set Builder Form | |

141 | Set difference and Symmetric difference | |

142 | Subset, proper and improper subsets | |

143 | De Morgan’s Law on Complementation (A Ո B)C = AC U BC – Through Shapes | |

144 | Test of divisibility for number 2 | Tests of divisibility |

145 | Tests of divisibility for numbers 5 and 10 | |

146 | Test of divisibility for number 4 | |

147 | Test of divisibility for number 3 | |

148 | Test of divisibility for number 6 | |

149 | Test of divisibility for number 9 | |

150 | Tests of divisibility for number 11 | |

151 | Test of divisibility for number 12 | |

152 | Test of divisibility by number 15 | |

153 | Test of divisibility by 8 | |

154 | Pythagoras Theorem | Trigonometry |

155 | Trigonometry – Introduction | |

156 | Trigonometric Ratios – Part 1 | |

157 | Trigonometric Ratios – Part 2 | |

158 | Trigonometric Ratios of Angle 30 Degrees | |

159 | Trigonometric Ratios of Angle 0 Degree | |

160 | Trigonometric Ratios of Angle 45 Degrees | |

161 | Trigonometric Ratios of Angle 60 Degrees | |

162 | Trigonometric Ratios of Angle 90 Degrees | |

163 | Cot Ө = Cos Ө / Sin Ө | |

164 | Sin square theta + Cos square theta =1 | |

165 | 1+ tan square theta = sec square theta | |

166 | 1+ cot square theta = Cosec square theta | |

167 | Sec (90- Ө) = Cosec Ө and Cosec (90- Ө) = Sec Ө | |

168 | Trigonometric identities :– Sin Ө x Cosec Ө = 1 | |

169 | Tan (90- Ө) = Cot Ө and Cot (90- Ө) = Tan Ө | |

170 | Trigonometric identities :- Tan Ө x Cot Ө = 1 | |

171 | Tan Ө = Sin Ө / Cos Ө | |

172 | Trigonometric identities :- Cos Ө x Sec Ө = 1 | |

173 | Sin (90 – Ө) and Cos (90 – Ө) when Ө is 30 and 60 degrees | |

174 | Sec (90 – Ө) and Cosec (90 – Ө) when Ө is 45 degrees | |

175 | Tan (90 – Ө) and Cot (90 – Ө) when Ө is 30 and 60 degrees |

176 | Instructional Videos for Learning Abacus | General Videos |

177 | Introduction to Abacus | |

178 | Terminology pertaining to Beads in the Abacus | |

179 | Essential skills for learning abacus | |

180 | Values of numbers in abacus | |

181 | Concepts of clearing and setting abacus | |

182 | Complement of a number | |

183 | Dots in the Separating Bar | |

184 | Abacus addition – General Rules | Abacus Addition |

185 | Addition of Single Digit Numbers | |

186 | Addition of Double Digit Numbers | |

187 | Addition of double digit number with a single digit number example 63+9 | |

188 | Addition of Triple Digit Numbers | |

189 | Addition of Triple Digit Numbers involving Zero | |

190 | Addition of 4 Digit Numbers | |

191 | Addition of a 4 Digit Number with a 2 digit number | |

192 | Addition of a 4 Digit Number with a 3 digit number | |

193 | Addition of a 2 digit number with a 4 digit number | |

194 | Addition of a 5 Digit Number with a 4 digit number | |

195 | Addition of a 5 Digit Number with a 4 digit number involving many zeros | |

196 | Example of a mathematical operation in the same column of the abacus | |

197 | Complicated additions made simple in Abacus | |

198 | Abacus addition involving three numbers | |

199 | Addition of three numbers involving variable digits. | |

200 | Column wise abacus addition of three digit numbers | |

201 | Random selection of columns for abacus addition | |

202 | Column wise addition of numbers in abacus | |

203 | Abacus Subtraction – General guidelines | Abacus – Subtraction |

204 | Abacus Subtraction – Example: 43-32 | |

205 | Abacus Subtraction – Example: 82-19 | |

206 | Abacus Subtraction – Example: 378 – 179 | |

207 | Abacus Subtraction – Example: 984-234 | |

208 | Abacus Subtraction – Example: 842-599 | |

209 | Abacus Subtraction involving Zero | |

210 | Abacus Subtraction involving Zero and multiple digits | |

211 | Abacus Subtraction: Example 5804-4971 | |

212 | Abacus Subtraction giving many zeros in the result | |

213 | Abacus subtraction involving zeros: Example 5001-408 | |

214 | Abacus subtraction – Example 20003-322 | |

215 | Abacus subtraction – Example 1111-999 | |

216 | Abacus Subtraction involving larger digits: Example: 105711-4305 | |

217 | Abacus Subtraction involving larger digits: Example: 77777-8888 | |

218 | Abacus subtraction – example 41123-9008 | |

219 | Abacus Subtraction involving larger digits: Example: 232824-99821 | |

220 | Abacus Subtraction involving larger digits: Example: 172844-81234 | |

221 | Abacus multiplication – General guidelines | Abacus – Multiplication |

222 | Setting of Multiplier, Multiplicand and Result | |

223 | Multiplication process using Abacus | |

224 | Need for the knowledge of multiplication tables for single digit numbers | |

225 | Multiplication of Single Digit Numbers using Abacus | |

226 | Multiplication of Single Digit Numbers where result is also a single digit number | |

227 | Multiplication of double digit numbers | |

228 | Multiplication of Double Digit numbers – Example: 38×29 | |

229 | Multiplication of double digit numbers – Example: 23×45 | |

230 | Multiplication of double digit numbers – Example: 49×51 | |

231 | Multiplication of double digit numbers – Example: 21×34 | |

232 | Multiplication of double digit numbers – Example: 47×39 | |

233 | Multiplication of double digit numbers – Example: 66×77 | |

234 | Place values of multiplied numbers using double digit multiplier and multiplicand | |

235 | Multiplication of Double Digit Multiplier and a single digit Multiplicand | |

236 | Multiplication of Double Digit Multiplier and a single digit Multiplicand – Example: 36×2 | |

237 | Multiplication of Double Digit Multiplier and a single digit Multiplicand – Example: 34×2 | |

238 | Multiplication of double digit multiplier and single digit multiplicand – Example: 45×9 | |

239 | Multiplication of double digit multiplier and single digit multiplicand – Example: 45×8 | |

240 | Multiplication of triple digit multiplier and single digit multiplicand – Example: 123×4 | |

241 | Multiplication of a single digit multiplier and three digits multiplicand – Example: 4×123 | |

242 | Multiplication of four digit multiplier and single digit multiplicand – Example: 1324×6 | |

243 | Multiplication of a single digit multiplier and four digits multiplicand – Example: 6×1324 | |

244 | Flexible procedures in setting digits of results in Abacus multiplication | |

245 | Flexible procedures in setting digits of results in Abacus multiplication – Example: 84×73 | |

246 | Abacus multiplication involving zero – Example: 405×307 | |

247 | Abacus multiplication involving zero – Example: 428×505 | |

248 | Abacus multiplication involving zero – Example: 4502×3006 | |

249 | Alternate modes of Multiplication: Example 24×32 | |

250 | Alternate modes of Multiplication: Example 325×46 | |

251 | Alternate modes of Multiplication: Example 305×46 | |

252 | Abacus Division – General Concepts part 1 | Abacus – Division |

253 | Abacus Division – General Concepts continuation | |

254 | Abacus Division – Setting Quotient | |

255 | Link between Quotient setting and Remainder values | |

256 | Abacus Division – Beauty of the Quotient setting Rule | |

257 | Abacus Division – How important the quotient sitting rule is | |

258 | Short division: Example – 912÷4 | |

259 | Abacus Short Division – Example – 384÷6 | |

260 | Abacus Division of small digits – Example: 283÷9 | |

261 | Abacus Division – treating every stage of division as a fresh division: Example: 714÷5 | |

262 | Abacus Division – treating every stage of division as a fresh division: Example: 666÷3 | |

263 | Abacus Division – treating every stage of division as a fresh division: Example: 123÷5 | |

264 | Abacus Division – Triple digit dividend and a single digit divisor | |

265 | Abacus Division – Triple digit dividend and a single digit divisor | |

266 | Abacus Division of small digits – Example: 238÷3 | |

267 | Abacus Division of small digits – Example: 837÷7 | |

268 | Abacus Division – Numbers involving zeros | |

269 | Abacus Division – Dividend having same numbers | |

270 | Abacus Division – four digit dividend and one digit divisor – Example: 9098÷3 | |

271 | Abacus Division – four digit dividend and one digit divisor – Example: 3612÷4 | |

272 | Abacus Division – four digit dividend and one digit divisor – Example: 4001÷9 | |

273 | Abacus Division – four digit dividend involving many zeros – Example: 3070÷4 | |

274 | Abacus Division – four digit dividend involving many zeros – Example: 4500÷3 | |

275 | Abacus Division – four digit dividend involving many zeros – Example: 6100÷7 | |

276 | Abacus Division example 51515÷6 | |

277 | Abacus Division – Concept of assumed quotient – Method 1 | |

278 | Abacus Division – Demonstration of assumed quotient – Method 1 | |

279 | Division of two digit dividend by two digit divisor – Example 84÷23 | |

280 | Division of two digit dividend by two digit divisor – Example 91÷25 | |

281 | Division of two digit dividend by two digit divisor – Example 91÷15 | |

282 | Division of two digit dividend by two digit divisor – Revising Assumed Quotient – Example 91÷15 | |

283 | Abacus Division – Concept of assumed quotient – Method 2 | |

284 | Abacus Division – Demonstration of assumed quotient Method 2 | |

285 | Abacus Division – Adjustment of the assumed quotient – Method 2 | |

286 | Abacus Division – what happens when the assumed quotient is larger than the real quotient – Example: 3588÷46 | |

287 | Exemption to the assumed quotient rule – Example: 219÷20 | |

288 | Exemption and Adoption of the assumed quotient rule in the same problem – Example: 336÷21 | |

289 | Application of the assumed quotient exemption rule multiple times in the same problem – Example: 3333÷33 | |

290 | Abacus Division – three digit dividend and two digit divisor – Example: 650÷25 | |

291 | Abacus division-three digit dividend and two digit divisor with the highest digits of the dividend and divisor being the same | |

292 | Adjustment in the assumed quotient | |

293 | Assumed quotient is the Real Quotient with a single digit remainder | |

294 | Assumed quotient is the Real Quotient with a double digit remainder | |

295 | Getting quotient involving zero in the division problem example 2542/36 | |

296 | Adjustment of assumed quotient in every division process. | |

297 | Same digits quotient and remainder involving zero | |

298 | Getting a quotient involving zero in the division problem example 4263 ÷ 21 | |

299 | Getting a quotient involving zero at the end of the quotient | |

300 | Double digit divisor and 4 digit number with 3 zeros | |

301 | Double digit divisor and 5 digit Dividend | |

302 | Double digit divisor and 5 digit Dividend – Example: 30,001÷44 | |

303 | Double digit divisor and 5 digit Dividend – Example: 11111÷55 | |

304 | Double digit divisor and 5 digit Dividend – Example: 55555÷44 | |

305 | Triple digit divisor and Triple Digit Dividend – Example: 965÷324 which gives a three digit remainder | |

306 | Triple digit divisor and Triple Digit Dividend – Example: 794÷246 which gives a two digit remainder | |

307 | Triple digit divisor and Triple Digit Dividend – Example: 875÷289 which gives a single digit remainder | |

308 | Triple digit divisor and Triple Digit Dividend – Example: 926÷123 where adjustment in assumed quotient is necessary | |

309 | Triple digit divisor and Triple Digit Dividend – Example: 926÷123 where a safe method is adopted in selecting the assumed quotient | |

310 | Triple digit divisor and Four Digit Dividend – Example: 4567÷296 | |

311 | Assumed quotient of higher digit divisors – Erring on the lower side is safe | |

312 | Assumed quotient – Erring on the lower side for safety – Example: 1716÷217 | |

313 | Assumed quotient – Erring on the lower side for safety – Example: 1716÷296 | |

314 | Four digit dividend and three digit divisor division– Example: 8888÷777 | |

315 | Use of two abacuses for higher level operations | |

316 | Division involving four digit dividend and three digit divisor – example: 1758÷324 | |

317 | Division involving four digit dividend and three digit divisor – example: 8436÷267 | |

318 | Four digit dividend and three digit divisor with zero giving zero as a part of the quotient too: Example: 6747÷330 | |

319 | Division involving four digit dividend and three digit divisor – example: 2222÷444 | |

320 | Four digit dividend and three digit divisor involving higher digits – Example: 9999÷888 | |

321 | Four digit dividend and three digit divisor involving zeros in dividend and divisor – example: 9100÷606 | |

322 | Division involving five digit dividend and three digit divisor – example: 78142÷236 – Part 1 | |

323 | Division involving five digit dividend and three digit divisor – example: 78142÷236 – Part 2 | |

324 | Division involving five digit dividend and four digit divisor – Example: 51902÷4235 | |

325 | Division involving five digit dividend and four digit divisor – Example: 51902÷4325 | |

326 | Abacus Decimal Operations | Abacus decimal addition |

327 | Conversion of Decimal Numbers to whole numbers | |

328 | Dealing with the addition of parts of Decimal Numbers | |

329 | Using two Abacuses for Decimal Addition | |

330 | Using a single Abacus for Decimal Addition | |

331 | Separate addition processes of whole number and decimal parts – Example: 49.86+75.356 | |

332 | Separate addition processes of whole number and decimal parts – Example : 756.212+32.989 | |

333 | Separate addition processes of whole number and decimal parts – Example : 756.878+329.989 | |

334 | Separate addition processes and using the abacus for reference | |

335 | Making single digit adjustments in the decimal parts | |

336 | Making double digit adjustments in the decimal points | |

337 | Making triple digit adjustments in the decimal portions | |

338 | Making triple digit adjustment in one decimal number | |

339 | Making varied digit adjustments in the decimal parts – Part 1 | |

340 | Making varied digit adjustments in the decimal parts – Part 2 | |

341 | Which method is most suitable for decimal addition | |

342 | Decimal addition – Example – 78.4 + 257.4237 | |

343 | Decimal addition – Example – 438.5678 + 65.42378 | |

344 | Abacus decimal subtraction – General guidelines | Abacus decimal Subtraction |

345 | Decimals subtraction – example 83.674-56.256 | |

346 | Decimals subtraction – example 183.67-5.256 | |

347 | Decimal subtraction – example 83.256-56.674 | |

348 | Subtracting whole numbers and decimal numbers separately – Example – 83.256-56.674 | |

349 | Subtracting whole numbers and decimal numbers separately Example – 183.25-56.674 | |

350 | Decimal Multiplication process using Abacus | Abacus decimal Multiplication |

351 | Multiplication of Decimal numbers – Example: 3.8×2.9 | |

352 | Multiplication of Decimal numbers – Example: 2.3×4.5 | |

353 | Multiplication of Decimal numbers – Example: 4.9×5.1 | |

354 | Multiplication of Decimal numbers – Example: 2.1×3.4 | |

355 | Multiplication of Decimal numbers – Example: 13.24×0.6 | |

356 | Multiplication of Decimal numbers – Example: 4×1.23 | |

357 | Multiplication of Decimal numbers – Example: 6×132.4 | |

358 | Multiplication of Decimal numbers – Example: 4.7×3.9 | |

359 | Multiplication of Decimal numbers – Example: 6.6×7.7 | |

360 | Multiplication of Decimal numbers – Example: 8.4×7.3 | |

361 | Multiplication of Decimal numbers – Example: 40.5×3.07 | |

362 | Multiplication of Decimal numbers – Example: 4.28×5.05 | |

363 | Multiplication of Decimal numbers – Example: 45.02×30.06 | |

364 | Division of Decimal numbers – General Guidelines | Abacus decimal Division |

365 | Decimal Division – Example: 175.6÷2.3 | |

366 | Decimal Division – Example: 254.2÷3.6 | |

367 | Getting Decimal Number in the Divisor | |

368 | Decimal division – Example: 21.9÷2 | |

369 | Decimal division – Example : 27.92÷0.42 | |

370 | Decimal division – Example : 6.5÷0.25 | |

371 | Decimal division – Example : 67.47÷3.3 | |

372 | Decimal division – Example : 40÷0.54 | |

373 | Addition of fractions in Abacus – General Rules | Abacus Fraction Addition |

374 | Addition of Fractions : Example : 2/7 + 3/5 | |

375 | Addition of Fractions : Example : 6/7 + 4/5 | |

376 | Addition of Fractions : Example : 5 6/7 + 7 4/5 | |

377 | Addition of Fractions : Example : 12 7/9+14 2/7 | |

378 | Addition of Fractions : Example : 24 13/16+27 1/4 | |

379 | Addition of Fractions : Example : 24 11/16+27 1/4 | |

380 | Addition of Fractions : Example : 14/15+ 4/5 | |

381 | Addition of Fractions : Example: 135 3/4+98 6/7 | |

382 | Addition of Fractions : Example : 44 11/15+45 19/20 | |

383 | Addition of Fractions : Example: 156 11/12 +76 7/8 | |

384 | Addition of Fractions : Example: 76 10/13+18 20/39 | |

385 | Addition of Fractions : Example: 1190 1/9+124 7/11 | |

386 | Addition of Fractions : Example: 15/16+ 14/15 | |

387 | Addition of Fractions : Example: 5/16+4/15 | |

388 | Addition of Fractions : Example: 45 9/12+51 7/11 | |

389 | Addition of Fractions : Adjustment of values at the end: Example: 1/4 + 3/8 | |

390 | Addition of Fractions : Adjustment of values at the end: Example: 3/4 + 5/8 | |

391 | Abacus – Fraction Subtraction – General Guidelines | Abacus Fraction Subtraction |

392 | Abacus – Fraction Subtraction – 7/9 – 1/3 | |

393 | Abacus – Fraction Subtraction – 9 5/8 – 6 1/12 | |

394 | Abacus – Fraction Subtraction – 9 5/8 – 6 11/12 | |

395 | Abacus – Fraction Subtraction – 64 6/7– 13 20/21 | |

396 | Abacus – Fraction Subtraction – 54 7/9 – 45 9/10 | |

397 | Abacus – Fraction Subtraction – 325 4/9 – 9 11/18 | |

398 | Abacus – Fraction Subtraction – 4333 23/30 – 101 39/45 | |

399 | Abacus – Fraction Subtraction – 524 12/13 – 453 9/11 | |

400 | Abacus – Fraction Subtraction – 546 5/11 – 417 7/17 | |

401 | Abacus – Fraction Subtraction – 546 3/11 – 417 7/17 | |

402 | Abacus – Fraction Subtraction – 43 3/5 – 21 4/111 | |

403 | Abacus – Fraction Subtraction – 1 3/5 – 80/111 | |

404 | Abacus Multiplication – Simple fractions | Abacus Fraction Multiplication |

405 | Abacus Multiplication – Cancellation Principle – Example: 2/3 x 9/10 | |

406 | Abacus Multiplication – Cancellation principle – Example: 3/4 x 4/9 | |

407 | Abacus Multiplication – Cancellation- Example: 6/7 x 8/9 | |

408 | Abacus Multiplication, Addition and Subtraction – Key difference – Example 1 | |

409 | Abacus Multiplication, Addition and Subtraction – Key difference – Example 2 | |

410 | Abacus Multiplication – General Rules for mixed fractions | |

411 | Abacus Multiplication involving one digit fractions : principles | |

412 | Abacus Multiplication : Example 7 2/3 X 11 1/4 | |

413 | Abacus Multiplication : Example 4 2/9 X 7 1/4 | |

414 | Abacus Multiplication : Example: 12 3/10 x 1 1/3 | |

415 | Abacus Multiplication : Example: 13 1/5 x 15 2/5 | |

416 | Abacus Multiplication : Example: 85 3/5 x 126 1/4 | |

417 | Abacus Multiplication : Example: 50 5/8 x 61 2/5 | |

418 | Fraction Division – General Guidelines | Abacus Fraction Division |

419 | Fraction Division : Single digit examples | |

420 | Fraction Division : Cancellation before division | |

421 | Fraction Division: Example – 103 3/5 ÷ 1 3/4 | |

422 | Fraction Division: Conversion through decimals – Example: 254 1/5÷3 3/5 | |

423 | Fraction Division: Conversion through decimals – Example: 67 47/100 ÷ 3 3/10 | |

424 | Fraction Division: Without conversion into decimals – Example: 67 47/100 ÷ 3 3/10 | |

425 | Fraction Division: Without conversion into decimals – Example: 23 7/12 ÷ 11 8/9 | |

426 | Fraction Division: With conversion into decimals – Example: 23 7/12÷ 11 8/9 | |

427 | Fraction Division: Without conversion into decimals – Example: 455 11/18 ÷ 32 7/9 | |

428 | Fraction Division: Without conversion into decimals – Example: 2201 7/8624 3/4 | |

429 | Fraction Division: Fractions involving zero – Example: 6 91/105 ÷ 3 61/70 | |

430 | Fraction Division: Fractions involving zero, Doing Cancellations at the beginning – Example: 6 91/105 ÷ 3 67/70 | |

431 | Fraction Division: Fractions involving zero – Example: 101 7/10 ÷ 10 1/70 | |

432 | Fraction Division: Fractions involving zero – Example: 6 121/1001 ÷ 2 1/10 | |

433 | Fraction Division: Fractions involving higher digit whole numbers – Example: 612 1/9 ÷ 34 1/10 | |

434 | Abacus – Square Roots – General Guidelines | Abacus Square Roots |

435 | Finding the Square root of a Perfect Square – Example : 324 | |

436 | Finding the Square root of a Perfect Square – Example : 576 | |

437 | Finding the Square root of a Perfect Square – Example : 576 with the application of assumed quotient rule | |

438 | Finding the Square root of a Perfect Square – Example : 1296 with the application of assumed quotient rule | |

439 | Finding the Square root of a Perfect Square – Example : 4225 | |

440 | Square root of Multiple digit numbers – Example : 103041 | |

441 | Square root of Multiple digit numbers – Example : 186624 | |

442 | Square root of odd digit numbers – Example : 55225 | |

443 | Square root of odd digit numbers – Example : 96721 | |

444 | Square root with Zero – Example : 91,809 | |

445 | Square root of a number with two zeros as the lowest digits – Example : 96,100 | |

446 | Square root of a number with two zeros as the lowest digits – Example : 53600 | |

447 | Square root of a number with one zero as the lowest digit – Example : 96,120 | |

448 | An even digit number with many zeros at the end can never be a perfect square | |

449 | An even digit number with many zeros at the end can never be a perfect square – Example 4000 | |

450 | Square root of odd digit numbers – Reducing the Groups : Example : 15129 | |

451 | Square root of odd digit numbers – Reducing the Groups : Example : 24649 | |

452 | Square root of Imperfect Square : 24697 | |

453 | Square root of Imperfect Square : 46369 | |

454 | Square root of an Imperfect Square : 84697 | |

455 | Square root of an Imperfect Square with 3 decimal digits: Example: 84693 | |

456 | Square root of six digit numbers – with 3 decimal digits: Example : 186834 | |

457 | Square root of six digit numbers involving zeros as lower digits – Example : 117000 | |

458 | Square root of six digit numbers involving four zeros as lower digits – Example : 120000 | |

459 | Square root of numbers involving zeros at the end | |

460 | Square root of six digit numbers involving four zeros as lower digits – Example : 200000 | |

461 | Square root of seven digit number involving six zeros as lower digits – Example : 5000000 | |

462 | Square root of seven digit numbers involving many zeros – Example : 6000057 | |

463 | Square root of seven digit numbers involving alternate sets of zeros – Example : 4006500 | |

464 | Square root of eight digit numbers involving four zeros as lower digits – Example : 12100000 | |

465 | Problems dealing with Percentage – General Guidelines | Abacus Percentage |

466 | Problems dealing with Percentage – Example 2.3% of 45 | |

467 | Problems dealing with Percentage – Example 5.2% of 176 | |

468 | Problems dealing with Percentage – Example 6% of 13.24 | |

469 | Problems dealing with Percentage – Example 4.28% of 505 | |

470 | Percentage – conversion to fractions – Example 25% of 624 | |

471 | Percentage – conversion to fractions – Example 2.5% of 624 | |

472 | Percentage – conversion to fractions – Example 25% of 6249 | |

473 | Percentage – conversion to fractions – Example 25% of 6249 – Alternate method – Extempore | |

474 | Percentage – conversion to fractions – Example 31% of 8357 | |

475 | The Amazing Abacus |

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